ESHM20 – Ground Motion Data and Model

ESHM20 Ground Motion Model (GMM)

For ESHM20 a regionally adjustable backbone Ground Motion Model (GMM) was developed to capture the ground motion variability for four main seismo-tectonic settings: shallow crust, volcanic, craton, subduction and deep sources. The backbone GMM logic tree for shallow crustal seismicity leverages heavily on the large volume of information in the Engineering Strong Motion (ESM) flatfile (Lanzano et al., 2019). The general framework to develop the backbone model is documented in various publications (Weatherill et al., 2018, 2020a, b; Kotha et al., 2020)

ESHM20 - illustration of the ground motion core backbone model (left) and spatial distribution of stations and recorded earthquakes (right).


Lanzano G., Luzi L., Russo E., Felicetta C., D’Amico M. C., Sgobba S., Pacor F. (2018). Engineering Strong Motion Database (ESM) flatfile [Data set]. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV).

Kotha, S. R., Weatherill, G., Bindi, D., & Cotton, F. (2020). A regionally adaptable ground motion model for shallow crustal earthquakes in Europe. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering.

Weatherill, G., Bindi, D., Cotton, F., Danciu, L. and Luzi, L. (2018, June). Building a new ground motion logic tree for Europe: needs, challenges and new opportunities from European seismological data. In Proceedings of the 16th European conference on earthquake engineering (pp. 18-21).

Weatherill, G., Kotha, S., Cotton, F. (2020a): A Regionally-Adaptable "Scaled Backbone'" Ground Motion Logic Tree for Shallow Seismicity in Europe: Application to the 2020 European Seismic Hazard Model. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 18, 5087-5117,

Weatherill GA and Cotton F (2020b) A ground motion logic tree for seismic hazard analysis in the stable cratonic region of Europe: regionalization, model selection and development of a scaled backbone approach. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 18: 6119 – 6148,

Danciu L., Nandan S., Reyes C., Basili R., Weatherill G., Beauval C., Rovida A., Vilanova S., Sesetyan K., Bard P-Y., Cotton F., Wiemer S., Giardini D. (2021) - The 2020 update of the European Seismic Hazard Model: Model Overview. EFEHR Technical Report 001, v1.0.0,